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The working principle and composition of belt conveyor

by:YiFan Conveyor     2022-09-18

A belt conveyor, also known as a belt conveyor or a belt conveyor, is a device that uses a conveyor belt as a traction and bearing member, and transfers materials through the continuous movement of the conveyor belt that carries the material. This knowledge class introduces you to the relevant knowledge of belt conveyors in detail.

Classification and principle of belt conveyor

The belt conveyor is driven by the driving device The drive roller drives the conveyor belt to transport materials through the friction between the drive roller and the conveyor belt. At present, it has been widely used in metallurgy, mining, port, food and chemical industry and other fields. The specific classification is as follows:

Fig. 1 Classification of belt conveyors

The belt conveyor is a middle frame and idler of the conveyor belt by the driving device tensioning device The conveyor belt is used as a traction and bearing member to continuously transport broken materials or finished products. The belt conveyor is mainly composed of two end rollers and a closed conveyor belt tightly sleeved on it.

The roller that drives the conveyor belt to rotate is called the drive roller (transmission roller); the other roller that only changes the direction of movement of the conveyor belt is called the reversing roller. The driving roller is driven by the motor through the reducer, and the conveyor belt is dragged by the friction between the driving roller and the conveyor belt. The drive drum is generally installed at the discharge end to increase the traction force and facilitate dragging. The material is fed from the feeding end, falls on the rotating conveyor belt, and is discharged from the unloading end of the conveying bag by means of the friction of the conveyor belt.

Figure 2 Working principle diagram

The composition and structure of the belt conveyor

The belt conveyor has the advantages of compact structure, reliable working performance, large conveying capacity, high production efficiency and flexible operation. Idler and frame, tensioning device, redirecting device, cleaning device, loading device and unloading device, auxiliary safety facilities and other components. (News recommendation: What are the types of belt conveyors? How to divide)

Figure 3 overall structure of belt conveyors

I. belts


The conveyor belt is the main component for pulling and carrying materials, and it should have sufficient strength and bearing capacity. The layout of the loading conveyor belt is shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4 Layout of the belt conveyor

Second, the driving device

The driving device mainly includes electric motor, hydraulic coupling, Brakes, reducers, couplings, drive rollers, etc. The structure diagram is shown in Figure 5 below:

Structure diagram of the drive device

Three, the motor

Generally, the flameproof type is used Three-phase asynchronous motor, as shown in Figure 6 below:

Figure 6 Flameproof three-phase asynchronous motor

Fourth, hydraulic coupling

Generally consists of pump wheel, turbine, casing, input shaft, output shaft, etc., as shown in Figure 7 below. It is a device that uses the kinetic energy of liquid for energy transfer.

Hydraulic coupling structure

Five, reducer

The commonly used reducer is a cylindrical gear reducer, and the input end of the reducer The motor is connected, and the output end is connected to the driving roller.

Figure 8 Structure of the reducer ()

Six. Coupling

The common coupling is the cross slide coupling The structure diagram is as follows:

Figure 9 Oldham coupling (left) and elastic pin coupling (right)< /p>

VII. Brake

The brake is a safety protection device, which can effectively prevent the conveyor belt from sliding down when the conveyor stops or when the speed is close to zero.

Figure 10 Brake structure

VIII. Roller


The drum is divided into driving drum and reversing drum. The drive roller is the main part of the power transmission, and the conveyor belt runs by the friction between it and the roller. The reversing roller type is used to change the running direction of the conveyor belt.

Drive roller/p>

Figure 12 Reversing roller

Nine, idler rollers

It is used to support the conveyor belt and the materials carried on it, to ensure the smooth operation of the conveyor belt, and it can be divided into types such as centering and buffering.

aligning idler

buffer idler

10. Frame< /p>

The frame is used to support the rollers, idlers, funnels, guide troughs and other components installed on it, and is generally composed of a head frame, a tail frame, an intermediate frame and feet.

Eleven, tensioning device

In general, the types of tensioning devices are screw type, car type, vertical type, hydraulic tensioner Tightening and tensioning winches, etc., are used to ensure that the loading conveyor belt and the drive roller do not slip, and to limit the sag of the conveyor belt between the idler groups, so that the conveyor can run normally, and it can also provide the necessary stroke for the conveyor belt to reconnect.

12. Cleaning device

The cleaning device is used to clean the materials adhering to the conveyor belt. There are usually head cleaners and empty section cleaners. The head cleaner is installed at the discharge drum to clean the sticky material on the working surface of the conveyor belt. The empty section cleaner is installed on the non-working surface of the lower branched conveyor belt in front of the tail drum or at the entry side of the vertical weight device to redirect the drum to clean the materials on the non-working surface of the conveyor belt.

Cleaning device

Thirteen, unloading device

The unloading device is used for unloading at any point in the middle of the conveyor. There are plough unloaders and unloaders and other types.

14. Safety protection device

Safety protection device is a device that can monitor and alarm when a fault occurs in the conveyor. , usually with deviation monitoring, slip monitoring and other devices.

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