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Introduction to the functions of the three major devices of the belt conveyor

by:YiFan Conveyor     2022-03-02

Belt conveyors have large conveying capacity, simple structure, convenient maintenance, low cost and strong versatility, and are widely used in metallurgy, coal, transportation, hydropower, chemical industry, building materials, light industry, grain, ports, ships and many other departments . The belt conveyor is mainly composed of frame, conveyor belt, idler, roller, tensioning device, transmission device, etc. We call the three major devices of belt conveyors: driving device, tensioning device, and redirecting device. Let's take a look at the specific functions of these three devices.

Drive device

The drive device of the belt conveyor consists of a motor, a coupling or a hydraulic coupling, a reducer, a drive roller, etc. The belt conveyor with inclined sections also Brakes or backstops should be provided as required. The function of the drive device is to transfer the gravitational force to the conveyor belt through friction by the drive roller to make it move and transport the goods.

Most belt conveyors are driven by a single drum, but with the continuous increase of the transportation volume and distance, the traction force transmitted by the driving drum is required to increase accordingly, so double drum and multi-drum drive appear. Each drive roller can be equipped with one or two drive units, and the end of the drive roller shaft is connected with the drive unit by a coupling.

The drive motor generally adopts the Y series cage motor, which has the advantages of small size, low cost, reliable operation, and easy to realize automatic control. When the power is small (≤37kW), it can be directly driven by the elastic coupling; when the power is large (45-315kW), it can be equipped with a hydraulic coupling to make the starting smoothly. In the case of high power (220-800kW), the winding type motor can be used, which is easy to control, makes the long-distance belt conveyor start smoothly, and solves the power balance problem of multi-roller drive.

In order to reduce the lateral size of the conveyor drive, the reducer of modern large belt conveyors often uses bevel gear reducers in addition to cylindrical gear transmission. For mobile belt conveyors, in order to reduce the weight, the transmission device mostly adopts belt, chain or one-stage open gear transmission. In addition, a cycloidal pinwheel reducer or an electric drum can be used.


Drum motor is to put the motor and reduction device in the drive drum, so it is compact in structure, light in weight, easy to arrange, safe to operate, suitable for humid and corrosive working conditions. The disadvantage is that the heat dissipation condition of the motor is not good, and the maintenance is inconvenient.

The drive roller transmits the traction force by means of the friction between its surface and the conveyor belt. There are two types of drive rollers: smooth surface and rubber surface.

The use of rubber surface, especially the patterned rubber surface, can increase the friction coefficient, and the patterned rubber surface also has a certain effect on preventing the conveyor belt from running. In the case of low power and low humidity, a smooth roller should be used; when the environment is humid, the power is high, and it is easy to slip, a rubber roller should be used.

Fatigue damage can occur due to bending of the conveyor belt as it goes around the pulley. Therefore, the diameter of the drive drum should not be too small. The diameter specifications of the drive drum are 500, 630, 800, 1000mm, etc., which can be selected according to the bandwidth.

Tensioning device

The function of the tensioning device is to maintain the necessary initial tension of the conveyor belt, so as to avoid slipping on the drive roller, and to ensure that the sag of the conveyor belt between the two idlers is within the specified range In the range. Tensioning devices mainly include screw type, trolley weight type and vertical weight type.

1) Helical tensioning device uses manpower to rotate the screw to adjust the tension of the conveyor belt. Its structure is simple and compact, but the magnitude of the tension force is not easy to grasp, and the tension force cannot be kept constant during the working process. Generally used on conveyors with a length of less than 100m and low power, the tensioning stroke can be selected according to 1%-1.5% of the length of the machine.

2) The trolley weight-hammer tensioner has a large size, a large footprint and a large mass, and is suitable for conveyors with high length and power, especially on inclined conveyors.

3) The vertical weight tensioning device can utilize the space below the conveyor corridor, and is arranged in the place where the tension of the lower branch tape is the smallest, thus reducing the weight of the weight. The disadvantage is to increase the number of reversing rollers, increase the bending times of the loading conveyor belt, and the material is easy to fall into the conveyor belt and the roller to damage the conveyor belt.

Reversing device

The belt loading conveyor adopts the reversing roller or the reversing idler group to change the moving direction of the loading conveyor belt.

Reversing rollers can be used for 180°, 90° or <45° direction changes of the conveyor belt. The reversing roller or vertical weight tensioning roller generally arranged at the rear can redirect the conveyor belt to 180°, the roller above the vertical weight tensioning device is redirected to 90°, and the direction below 45° is generally used to increase the conveyor belt. Envelope angle with the drive drum.

The diameter of the diverting drum is 250, 315, 400, 500, 630, 800, 1000mm, etc. It can be matched with the diameter of the driving drum when choosing. When turning 180°, its diameter can be one gear smaller than the diameter of the drive drum, and when turning 90° or 45°, it can be appropriately 1-2 gears smaller as the turning angle decreases.

The reversing idler group is a number of supporting idlers arranged along the arc of the required radius. It is used where the curvature radius of the conveyor belt is large, or in the slot-shaped idler section. The belt is thrown at the redirection to maintain the grooved cross-section.

When the conveyor belt passes through the convex arc section, the elongation on both sides of the conveyor belt is greater than the center due to the influence of the groove angle of the idler. In order to reduce the stress of the tape, the radius of curvature of the convex arc segment should be as large as possible, generally according to the elongation of the fabric core tape of 0.8%.

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